Ed's Radio (AA6ED) – Technician Exam SubElements

T1 – FCC Rules, descriptions and definitions for the Amateur Radio Service, operator and station license responsibilities

Amateur Radio Service: purpose and permissible use of the Amateur Radio Service; operator/primary station license grant; where FCC rules are codified; basis and purpose of FCC rules; meanings of basic terms used in FCC rules; interference; spectrum management
Authorized frequencies: frequency allocations; ITU regions; emission modes; restricted sub-bands; spectrum sharing; transmissions near band edges.
Operator licensing: operator classes; sequential, special event, and vanity call sign systems; international communications; reciprocal operation; station license and licensee; places where the amateur service is regulated by the FCC; name and address on FCC license database; license term; renewal; grace period.
Authorized and prohibited transmission: communications with other countries; music; exchange of information with other services; indecent language; compensation for use of station; retransmission of other amateur signals; codes and ciphers; sale of equipment; unidentified transmissions; broadcasting.
Control operator and control types: control operator required; eligibility; designation of control operator; privileges and duties; control point; local, automatic and remote control; location of control operator.
Station identification; repeaters; third party communications; club stations; FCC inspection.

T2 – Operating Procedures

Station operation: choosing an operating frequency; calling another station; test transmissions; procedural signs; use of minimum power; choosing an operating frequency; band plans; calling frequencies; repeater offsets.
VHF/UHF operating practices: SSB phone; FM repeater; simplex; splits and shifts; CTCSS; DTMF; tone squelch; carrier squelch; phonetics; operational problem resolution; Q signals.
Public service: emergency and non-emergency operations; applicability of FCC rules; RACES and ARES; net and traffic procedures; emergency restrictions.

T3 – Radio wave characteristics: properties of radio waves; propagation modes

Radio wave characteristics: how a radio signal travels; fading; multipath; wavelength vs. penetration; antenna orientation.
Radio and electromagnetic wave properties: the electromagnetic spectrum; wavelength vs. frequency; velocity of electromagnetic waves; calculating wavelength.
Propagation modes: line of sight; sporadic E; meteor and auroral scatter and reflections; tropospheric ducting; F layer skip; radio horizon.

T4 – Amateur radio practices and station set up

Station setup: connecting microphones; reducing unwanted emissions; power source; connecting a computer; RF grounding; connecting digital equipment; connecting an SWR meter.
Operating controls: tuning; use of filters; squelch function; AGC; repeater offset; memory channels.

T5 – Electrical principles: math for electronics; electronic principles; Ohm's Law

Electrical principles, units, and terms: current and voltage; conductors and insulators; alternating and direct current.
Math for electronics: conversion of electrical units; decibels; the metric system.
Electronic principles: capacitance; inductance; current flow in circuits; alternating current; definition of RF; DC power calculations; impedance.
Ohm's Law: formulas and usage.

T6 – Electrical components: semiconductors; circuit diagrams; component functions

Electrical components: fixed and variable resistors; capacitors and inductors; fuses; switches; batteries.
Semiconductors: basic principles and applications of solid state devices; diodes and transistors.
Circuit diagrams; schematic symbols.
Component functions: rectification; switches; indicators; power supply components; resonant circuit; shielding; power transformers; integrated circuits.

T7 – Station equipment: common transmitter and receiver problems; antenna measurements; troubleshooting; basic repair and testing

Station equipment: receivers; transmitters; transceivers; modulation; transverters; low power and weak signal operation; transmit and receive amplifiers.
Common transmitter and receiver problems: symptoms of overload and overdrive; distortion; causes of interference; interference and consumer electronics; part 15 devices; over and under modulation; RF feedback; off frequency signals; fading and noise; problems with digital communications interfaces.
Antenna measurements and troubleshooting: measuring SWR; dummy loads; coaxial cables; feed line failure modes.
Basic repair and testing: soldering; using basic test instruments; connecting a voltmeter, ammeter, or ohmmeter.

T8 – Modulation modes: amateur satellite operation; operating activities; non-voice communications

Modulation modes: bandwidth of various signals; choice of emission type.
Amateur satellite operation; Doppler shift, basic orbits, operating protocols; control operator, transmitter power considerations; satellite tracking; digital modes.
Operating activities: radio direction finding; radio control; contests; linking over the Internet; grid locators.
Non-voice communications: image signals; digital modes; CW; packet; PSK31; APRS; error detection and correction; NTSC.

T9 – Antennas and feed lines

Antennas: vertical and horizontal polarization; concept of gain; common portable and mobile antennas; relationships between antenna length and frequency.
Feed lines: types of feed lines; attenuation vs. frequency; SWR concepts; matching; weather protection; choosing RF connectors and feed lines.

T0 – Electrical safety: AC and DC power circuits; antenna installation; RF hazards

Power circuits and hazards: hazardous voltages; fuses and circuit breakers; grounding; lightning protection; battery safety; electrical code compliance.
Antenna safety: tower safety; erecting an antenna support; overhead power lines; installing an antenna.
RF hazards: radiation exposure; proximity to antennas; recognized safe power levels; exposure to others; radiation types; duty cycle.